August 21

How to Determine If You Have Hypochlorhydria

How to Determine If You Have Hypochlorhydria


Excess Stomach Acid is Not the Problem

Most people that are prescribed Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) or H-2 Blockers rarely have their stomach acidity levels tested. Contrary to what the TV commercials and common sense tell us, incidences of excess stomach acid levels are nearly non-existent. Part of this misunderstanding is because the symptoms of excess stomach acid and low stomach acid are the same.

Because of this misunderstanding, many people take over-the-counter antacids. Unfortunately, these antacids, while relieving the symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux, worsen the problem by reducing the amount of stomach acid the person has.

Our Stomachs Produce Less Stomach Acid as We Age

As we age, our stomachs gradually produce less and less stomach acid rather than more. Although low stomach acid can occur at any age, it decreases with age; it is estimated that over 50% of people over 65 have low stomach acid. I bet it is higher and at a younger age. Our stomachs must contain enough acid to activate pepsin secretion from our stomach lining to digest our food quickly.

We Need to Increase Stomach Acid

Our stomachs need to be acidic – optimally 1.5 - 3 pH (where 1.5 is more acidic than 3) – in order to break down the protein, fats, and carbohydrates we consume and extract the vitamins, minerals, and nutrients we need for optimum health.

While eating, stomach acid production gradually elevates, neutralizing enzymes coming from the mouth, helping to kill bacteria, parasites, and viruses that enter with the food, and digestion of protein, carbohydrates, and fat starts.

What You Will Learn

Hypochlorhydria or Low stomach acid is the primary cause of acid reflux disease and GERD. You most likely have insufficient stomach acid if you have acid reflux disease and GERD. The chances of you being Hyperchlorhydric (too much stomach acid) are extremely rare. 

  • 6 Causes of  Hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid)

  • 9 Indicators That Your Stomach Is Not Producing Sufficient Hydrochloric Acid

  • How to Perform a Simple Home Test To Determine If You Are Hypochlorhydric (Low Stomach Acid)

  • 7 Simple Lifestyle Changes That Can Help Correct Low Stomach Acid

What Are The Medical Terms?

The pH of stomach acid (or gastric acid ) is in the range of 1.5 pH to 3.5 pH. It is made up primarily of hydrochloric acid, potassium, and sodium. The acidity is maintained by the proton pump H+/K+ ATPase.

Your stomach acidity is maintained by the parietal cells in the stomach lining, which naturally increase the acid levels when you eat to allow for proper digestion. After digestion, the parietal cells release bicarbonate, which causes a temporary rise in pH (reduced acidity).

Hyperchlorhydria: Excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. This is extremely rare.

Hypochlorhydria: An abnormally low level of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. This is extremely common.

Hypochlorhydria is also referred to as Achlorhydria.

6 Causes Of Hypocholorhydria (Low Stomach Acid)

Overuse of Anti-Biotics causes an increase in intestinal inflammation. This inflammation increases stress hormones reducing the body’s ability to create adequate stomach acid. 

  1. As we age, our stomachs produce less and less stomach acid.
  2. The overuse of NSAIDs wears down the stomach lining, reducing the stomach's ability to produce stomach acid. These include Tylenol, aspirin, Aleve, and Ibuprofen.
  3. The overuse of antibiotics can cause the overgrowth of H Pylori. Overgrowth of H Pylori produces an enzyme called “urease,” which breaks down urea in the stomach into carbon dioxide and ammonia, which causes burping and bad breath as well as reducing your stomach acid allowing further overgrowth of H Pylori.
  4. Food sensitivities cause stress and inflammation in the body resulting in reduced stomach acid production.  
  5. Acid Reflux medications such as Antacids, H2 blockers, and Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) reduce stomach acid production leading to microbial overgrowth and further stress on the body.

We All Require Sufficient Levels Of Stomach Acid

Stomach acid is important for all digestive functions and is also a defense against food-borne pathogens that may cause food poisoning. Low stomach acid is the cause of many digestive issues from food sensitivities, SIBO, IBS, colitis, parasites, candida, and more.

Unfortunately, most people with heartburn and acid reflux take antacids, Proton Pump Inhibitors, or H2 Blockers, which makes the problem worse. It fixes the symptoms but worsens the underlying cause, so they must take this medication often, usually daily.

So the question is, do you have low stomach acid? As we age, we produce less and less stomach acid, so if you are over 50, it is almost certain that you are not producing sufficient hydrochloric acid to complete digestion properly.

How to determine if you have low stomach acid

9 Indicators That Your Stomach Is Not Producing Sufficient Hydrochloric Acid

1. You Experience Heartburn Shortly After Eating

You may or may not be aware that low stomach acid is the leading cause of heartburn. Insufficient stomach acid results in food remaining in the stomach too long and fermenting, causing bloating, which can force stomach acid into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).

2. You Feel Lethargic Or Nauseous After Eating Meat

If you feel tired or nauseous after eating meals with large quantities of meat (more than 4 ounces), there is a good chance you have insufficient stomach acid. Also, if you feel like you have a large lump in your stomach hours after eating (sometimes even the following day), you are showing that you have digestive issues.

Not being able to digest protein properly can result in several issues. Below are some indicators:

  • Hair loss
  • Feel weak or have no energy
  • Loss of muscle tone – this is extreme – basically, you’re not deriving enough protein from the meat you eat to support protein synthesis
  • Deficient in vitamin B12
  • Irregular bowel movements
  • Headaches and body aches

3. Belching and Bloating About an Hour After a Meal

Another essential function of stomach acid is to trigger the opening of the pyloric valve (it connects the stomach to the small intestine). This valve opens when the stomach contents are in the correct state of digestion to move to the next stage of digestion.

Suppose there is insufficient stomach acid to get the stomach contents to this digestive state quickly enough. In that case, the contents start to ferment, causing gas that exerts pressure inside the stomach, causing bloating. If the pressure exceeds a level that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) can no longer resist, the sphincter opens and allows gas to escape through the esophagus (a burp).

Quite often, this burp will be accompanied by a small amount of stomach acid due to the bloating of the stomach. Unfortunately, the esophagus is not equipped with protection against stomach acid, causing pain in the form of heartburn. Most people at this point will pop an antacid which will quickly relieve the heartburn symptoms in the short term but, in the long term, exacerbates the problem by reducing stomach acid even further.

4. Bad Breath and Body Odor

Poor dental hygiene can cause bad breath, but if this is not the case and you still have bad breath, it indicates poor digestion. Your food is fermenting in your stomach, causing additional toxins. With all the toxins in our environments, the liver cannot detoxify this additional load resulting in smelly breath and body odor.

A deficiency of magnesium can cause body odor. This is a sign that you cannot sufficiently extract nutrients from your food. Improperly digested protein is a breeding ground for yeast and bacteria producing toxins exhibiting bad breath and body odor.

5. Not Hungry the Next Morning After Eating a Large Meal the Night Before

This can occur because you have insufficient stomach acid to digest your meal fully. You’re not hungry because you still have undigested food in your stomach.

6. Hungry All The Time, Even Shortly After You Finish Eating

This seems to contradict indicator number 4 above. Feeling hungry while you are still full from a recent meal indicates that you are not deriving the essential nutrients you need from your food. This causes your body to crave more food to meet this requirement.

7. Your Fingernails Have Longitudinal Ridging, Bumpy Nail Beds, White Flecks, or Peel

Longitudinal ridging on your fingernails occurs because the nail is getting thin. This is a result of poor protein digestion. It may also be a sign of iron deficiency.

Bumpy nail beds can be caused by inflammation of the Gastral Intestinal tract and can also be caused by a nutrient deficiency. White specks in your nail indicate a possible deficiency in protein, zinc, and iron. If fingernails chip, peel, or break easily, you may be deficient in essential fatty acids.

You could take supplements for these deficiencies, but you likely won’t be able to absorb them either. You need to increase your stomach acid levels to absorb these nutrients from your food.

8. You Have Undigested Food in Your Stool

The undigested food is usually comprised of high-fiber vegetable matter which isn’t completely digested by the enzymes in your digestive tract. If you have insufficient stomach acid, these enzymes will not be released.

9. You Have Symptoms of Nutrient Deficiencies

The symptoms of nutritional deficiency are dependent on which nutrient is lacking. Here are some general symptoms that can indicate deficiencies:

  • Mood disorders, depression, anxiety, irritability, confusion
  • Tingling or numbness in the hands and/or feet
  • Skin disorders such as rashes, psoriasis, dry, scaly skin
  • Muscle weakness
  • High Cholesterol levels
  • Pale Skin
  • Insomnia
  • Fatigue
  • Unusual food cravings
  • Hair Loss
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)

The Baking Soda Test For Low Stomach Acid

Baking soda test for low stomach acid

Do this first thing in the morning before you eat or drink anything:

  1. Mix a quarter teaspoon of baking soda in 8 ounces of room temperature water.

  2. Drink the baking soda and water and start a timer. The baking soda reacts with your stomach acid, causing carbon dioxide and causing a burp.

  3. Mark the time when you burp.

  4. If you burp between 2 and 3 minutes, your stomach produces adequate stomach acid—no need to read further.

  5. If you burp between 3 and 5 minutes, you may need to boost your stomach acid production.

  6. If you don’t burp after 5 minutes, stop the timer. Your stomach is not producing sufficient stomach acid.

Interpreting Your Results

If you burp between 3 and 5 minutes or didn’t burp during the test, please read on to learn how to increase your stomach acid naturally to normal levels. This is important for your overall health, not just to cure acid reflux. Again, I recommend you do this for three mornings in a row to find the average time before you burp.

This test is not accurate enough to completely rule out low stomach acid. Instead, treat it as an indicator to determine if you want to investigate additional testing, i.e., the Heidelberg Stomach Acid Test is the most accurate but expensive (approx USD 350).


Besides being the leading cause of acid reflux disease and GERD, low stomach acid is also the primary cause of food sensitivities, IBS, colitis, SIBO, osteoporosis, anemia, etc. Almost all digestive dysfunction can be traced to low stomach acid in the person afflicted. 

This home test is not 100% accurate. You should always check with your doctor to make sure.

Do not try to stop taking PPIs or B2 blockers cold turkey! If you do, you will likely experience ‘Acid Rebound Hypersecretion,' with heartburn symptoms that are almost unbearable and may last more than three weeks.

Speak with your doctor about how best to wean off of these medications.


  1. "13 Signs You Have Hypochlorhydria | Eat Naked Now." N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2015

  2. “4 Things Your Fingernails Can Tell You About Your Health | Know Your Body.” Web. 9 Jan 2017

  3. “Nutritional Deficiencies (Malnutrition) |” Web. 25 July 2017


The information contained here does not constitute medical advice and is not meant to diagnose, treat, prevent, or cure disease. Please contact your doctor. The information provided is for informational purposes only and are solely the views of the author.

Low Stomach Acid is the Main Cause of Heartburn, Acid Reflux, and GERD

Please Leave a Comment

  • I have had acid reflux for a few months , I get white mucus up into my throat and chest every day all day , I have to cough the mucas from my chest , I have just gone onto Nexium been on it for 5 days but I don’t feel it’s doing any good as I’m still getting mucas up to my throat and chest . I am still getting pain in my chest , I am getting a very dry mouth as well , food that I am eating is still causing my stomach cramps , could I have what you are describing low acid in my stomach

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